)™��;�Z���/t�;�iGLAO�nT�l;[m9�3�8�,Z�f�\�_��b�i��2�8�GA��u76�0�l��#W��([xwG^�������#��&|��nD���]�^��^����7�y5{ĕL����y�6� ��7���=���N7' �[]�L�� j�n����%�HL�)��s��c��`�z��'ky2e��g9�}m� �v���=q#�7{���)+�bcy�[.>���9� }? %PDF-1.3 %���� This is the first blog for 2017 and I thought I’d start the year with a plant that receives a bad rap. (Solanaceae) is that contained in the section Solanum centefing around the species Solanum nigrum L., the black nightshade (Ganapathi and Rao 1986). All of these are called “black nightshade,” and exhibit only minor differences. I have had to learn the difference as the local Latino population comsume Solanum americanum which is not the same as Solanum nigrum but they look similar unless you know what to look for. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. Subspecies are also : SONI4: Solanum nigrum auct. It prefers moist soil. Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill. trailer << /Size 126 /Info 95 0 R /Root 97 0 R /Prev 713557 /ID[<07f8e4254c4723c1f7e9d94d66f249a1><07f8e4254c4723c1f7e9d94d66f249a1>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 97 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 94 0 R /PageMode /UseThumbs /PageLayout /SinglePage /OpenAction 98 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 99 0 R /FitH -32768 ] >> endobj 124 0 obj << /S 96 /T 205 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 125 0 R >> stream 1, 2). 0000007926 00000 n Dillenius 441 (Dill-HE 275-355, OXF) Both designated by Särkinen et al. 0000006427 00000 n 0000001070 00000 n 0000007196 00000 n The Great Plains is home to S. interius, and S. douglasii is found in the … subsp. 0000008743 00000 n Compositions and methods and for enhancing the resistance of plants to a plant disease caused by a Phytophthora species are provided. The Solanum nigrum complex species have also been used traditionally as medicine. nitidibaccatum (Bitt) Edmonds 32 S. retroflexum Dunal 34 Solanum americanum, solanum nigrum & Solanum villosum- 5 images. H��Vˮ�0���e*5�m�˪WWj�]YvC� ��2�Q���N�1�VYDJ�̜�93�0P�>�!�qX��[p�0���AC����3����50W�K���3y����)QI�8VQ�������i��x�G9@�>�/w������cZW�i� w)ZVgR���A�Xe�B0;��$.�݂��hl�f��5 Solanum nigrum, the European black nightshade or simply black nightshade or blackberry nightshade, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Solanum, native to Eurasia and introduced in the Americas, Australasia, and South Africa. 1732; Epitype: Herb. The fruit may be more toxic to children than adults. 0000007174 00000 n Earlier I thought we had only two, no S. americanum Mill., but the eFI and FoC KEY tells me otherwise. Solanaceae Fortnight: Solanum americanum from Agastamuni, Uttarakhand-GSFEB20/22, Solanaceae Week: Solanum americanum PKFEB06/06, Solanaceae Fortnight:Pune:: Solanum americanum ::SMPFEB 2/2, Solanaceae Fortnight:: Solanum americanum Mill.-NS Feb 37/37, Solanaceae Fortnight: Solanum americanum Mill from Assam KD 08, FEB '15, Solanum nigrum FOR VALIDATION :: Vythiri, Wayanad :: 15 NOV 19. 0000001798 00000 n 0000008785 00000 n patulum (L.) Edmonds (1977:75) Lectotype: "Solanum procerius patulum, vulgaris fructu", Dillenius, Hortus Elthamensis 2: 367, t. 275, f. 355. Sign in|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites, Pictures were taken today from same place, these three species growing here as weeds. Solanum americanum American black nightshade This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Solanum americanum Mill. Black Nightshade - Solanum nigrum / S. americanum / S. ptycanthum complex has 284 members. 0000007948 00000 n H�b```g``�a`e`H�� ̀ ��l,�\i�gLR��$����u�4�i���4�Z��enc�`pk`T�`�@VN\��iI � ��10z0d1�200K0000� ��9@�P���9_�#@�"L��2d2�0da (1988). S. nigrum: Flowers 7-10 mm across, anthers 2-3 mm long; berries 7-9 mm in diam, dull black; fruiting calyx appressed or slightly deflexed; seeds 1.7-2.5 mm long. 0000001448 00000 n Solanum villosum (left), Solanum americanum (middle) & Solanum nigrum (right). The two species Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. 0000005640 00000 n It can have up to 60 seeds though 15 to 35 is common. To add to the confusion, Solanum nigrum is eaten and used as animal fodder all over the world, though many sources continue to describe it as toxic. 0000004746 00000 n non Mill. Earlier I thought we had only two, no, The following upload by you had clearly shining black berries and longer peduncled matching. Solanaceae Fortnight: Feb2015sk01/18: Solanum americanum Mill. Will update my notes. 26 S. nigrum L. 28 S. physalifolium Rusby var. non L.: SOPT3: Solanum ptychanthum Dunal, database artifact It can be confused with other black nightshade species in the Solanum nigrum … Solanum nigrum: berries 8–13 mm wide, with 15–60 seeds 1.8–2.2 mm long, anthers 1.8–2.5 mm long, and inflorescence with usually 5–7 flowers (vs. S. ptycanthum, with berries 5–9 mm wide, with 50–110 seeds 1.4–1.8 mm long, anthers 1.3–2 mm long, and inflorescence with usually 1–4 flowers). A tendency exists in literature to incorrectly refer to many of the other "black nightshade" species as "Solanum nigrum". Boiling may break down solanine but drying does not. Hend.) ���.zd���s�:V°�:2ӧF[��`�Y���4��p( $[M�ld4���,�y�� Z�=��O�t��d�ׅ�r[m�n*�-R��;wm�q�I�i��`')00�a��W�,ڕX;�?Ix#���W-�+��}��g�^ȅܗ+!�m�^5���15�FG�k�`��o���_5!�t�6�?�O��͎��UY�D[b��RH��"~r�WG�c�^m���tw�I�./�� 5� 8�G�~��6#6�� ��&� endstream endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F2 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 105 0 obj 670 endobj 106 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 105 0 R >> stream I was looking forward to this fortnight. Three kilograms of green Solanum nigrum were once fed to a horse without any hazardous results. It can have up to 60 seeds though 15 to 35 is common. Title Protabase - Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the species of Solanum nigrum complex found in Rift 0000001426 00000 n As nouns the difference between solanum and nightshade is that solanum is (east africa) a traditional green vegetable, specifically solanum nigrum , and sometimes while nightshade is (botany) any of the poisonous plants belonging to the genus solanum , especially black nightshade or woody nightshade. Solanum americanum is one of the most widespread and morphologically variable species belonging to the section Solanum. 0000004724 00000 n 0000008809 00000 n Many species make up the Solanum nigrum complex, and some include S. scabrum, S. villosum, S. americanum, S. nigrum, S. americanum, and S. physalifolium. Its flowers are also arranged in slightly elongated clusters, and its fruit are generally borne pointing downwards. In most regions, Solanum americanum fruits are considered inedible but Kipsigis children in Kenya eat the ripe fruits and also in the border region between south-eastern Zimbabwe and Mozambique the sweet fruits of local varieties are much appreciated[299. Cross pollinations were made reciprocally between S. americanum and S. villosum. Never eat anything you are not certain of. 0000002885 00000 n Expression of Solanum nigrum genes in response to attack from flea beetles, Epitrix pubescens, by microarray, RNA gel‐blot, and real‐time qPCR analysis (C = control, FB = flea beetle infested). Symbol Scientific Name; SOAM4: Solanum americanum auct. ���9\O��8S�u#BQzD��*�G����Z_��ƥk���A��Vdug���u[@Q��r҄����؃��LD9͙&^�l4�f� Y�,^��"En�i{?q���>�'�i�VA16�4�ٸ�(��/��'�uf80��-���@#W �[zi�E�#�y�@9'���t#"bW��|^ e�T���rpD����R��? H��V�n�0���C���v;����U�Z�f{�KB� 2�����&&6��"�'��{��s���$ Ә�0�uC�[tsc��s�K�/O��o4�˦�U���R͕��g{��^��6P�!��z��,�8�w<4rȟKa�(�^V�2����5���'N�s◫O���{���Y[!� 9v���c��]!���%��Xbh9@C�ӟʶy���Q�"��G�Y��R�D8��n�)6�$=g�g�p��S��,9s�[OD�9���q�s)�Z�,�(��E}1�Z=�h��G�,�Y:�c��;K�H@ʺ��v9u��ˡm����H�2�=k�n�����bux�b�3�瀍`_����L2�N�9��.��I�� ��xnT��7���3�͵x���Cy��9e3y�>2���DO��z��7���-I�W��r/ˢ�z����b lumped together under one name, Solanum nigrum. Its flowers are also arranged in Ripe berries and cooked leaves of edible strains are used as food in some locales, and plant parts are used as a traditional medicine. Recent experimental studies (Edmonds and Glidewell 1977; Edmonds 1977, 1979; Ganapathi and Rao 1985) have proved that Solanum americanum … For better viewing of species' pages, colour scheme & formatting is being followed as: Description of the species, Details of other flora species on the same page, Uses/ harms, Distribution, Abundance/ Location/ Flowering time & date, Habit & habitat, Etymology & pronunciation, Other interesting information, stories etc., Others, Botanical names, Common names, Main point of discussion below, Discussion about Botanical names. 0000003019 00000 n 0000003813 00000 n ... blackberry nightshade (Solanum nigrum) can typically be distinguished by its dull fruit with smaller outward pointing or recurved sepals. 0000004594 00000 n I am attaching the pics of all the three taxa in consecutive messages, your views are requested.. 0000003041 00000 n �N�S��)0G2p�6Ҭ ��D3p�}���]��g�^c` 0 ��.& endstream endobj 125 0 obj 201 endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Page /MediaBox [ 0 0 568 810 ] /Parent 94 0 R /Resources << /Font << /F0 101 0 R /F1 100 0 R /F2 104 0 R /F3 109 0 R /F4 112 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 123 0 R >> /ProcSet 121 0 R >> /Contents [ 103 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 111 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R ] /CropBox [ 0 0 567.28 810 ] /Rotate 0 /Thumb 81 0 R >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F1 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman,Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /Name /F0 /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 102 0 obj 734 endobj 103 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 102 0 R >> stream Microarray analysis revealed gene regulation in different categories and independent gel‐blot and real‐time qPCR analyses verified expression patterns of individual genes from the array. Browse pictures and read growth / cultivation information about Solanum Species, Black Nightshade, Eastern Black Nightshade, West Indian Nightshade (Solanum … R.J.F. 0000002071 00000 n 1989 Morphological Diversification and Genetic Isolating Mechanism of Solanum nigrum Complex 421 Observations A statistical comparison of the cytomorphological characters of two species showed consistent differences between two populations (Table 2 and Figs. The successful crosses were calculated by counting the number of fruit set … Solanum scabrum is a widely cultivated species and is used as a leafy vegetable, as a source of medicine and as a source of ink dye. Pictures were taken today from same place, these three species growing here as weeds. nutans (R.J.F. Solanum americanum, commonly known as American black nightshade, small-flowered nightshade or glossy nightshade is a herbaceous flowering plant of wide though uncertain native range. Remember that many Europeans considered tomatoes to be poisonous well into the 18th century. 96 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 99 /H [ 1132 316 ] /L 715605 /E 59002 /N 5 /T 713567 >> endobj xref 96 30 0000000016 00000 n 0000001132 00000 n and Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution , Jun 2007 Mkabwa L. K. Manoko , Ronald G. van den Berg , Richard M. C. Feron , Gerard M. van der Weerden , Celestina Mariani O.E.Schulz (1909:160) ... Solanum americanum var. Thanks very much … for the ID. Solanum nigrum var. The certain native range encompasses the tropics and subtropics of the Americas, Melanesia, New Guinea, and Australia.. For any mistake in identification or for becoming efloraofindia e-group member (for contributing towards building of efloraofindia or otherwise), pl. And be warned, not everyone who posts images on the internet can tell the difference. In North America, S. ptychanthum dominates in the East, and S. americanum dominates in the South. As with all members of the Solanum family there’s still a great deal of superstition when it comes to toxicity. Hend. Solanum are present in Africa: Solanum scabrum and S. nigrum. endstream endobj 107 0 obj 701 endobj 108 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 107 0 R >> stream In previous studies a wide range of morphological diversity has been reported in this species and in some studies subspecies have been proposed. Blackberry nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is very similar to glossy nightshade (Solanum americanum), and intermediates between the two species are sometimes seen. 0000002049 00000 n 22 S. chenopodioides Lam. 0000005618 00000 n mail to indiantreepix@googlegroups.com or itpmods@googlegroups.com   2. The compositions comprise nucleic acid molecules encoding resistance (R) gene products and variants thereof and plants, seeds, and plant cells comprising such nucleic acid molecules. It cannot grow in the shade. Solanum nigrum is a cadmium (Cd) accumulator, whereas Solanum torvum is a low Cd‐accumulating plant. Black Nightshade discussion group. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. The Solanum nigrum, one to three feet high, has dull black fruit — dull that’s important — and the fruit is larger than S. americanum. Symptoms of solanine overdose include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. �ʳ�Kg>ʯ����uU?^5+ 0000000948 00000 n Happy New Year everyone! Thanks … The leaves are not dentate sinuate as much as expected for, The flowers are tiny - less than 5 mm across, thus making me think of, ..., please let me know if I am mistaking; or missing some characteristic leading to. (2018). The molecular mechanisms that are responsible for differential cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the two Solanum species are poorly understood.. Morphological characteristics of Solanum L. section Solanum species 17 Key to the species of Solanum L. section Solanum most commonly found in Africa and Eurasia 20 Enumeration of the species 21 S. americanum Miller. Diploid (Solanum americanum) and tetraploid (S. villosum) cytotypes were used in the hybridization. 1. Solanum americanum is a ANNUAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). 0000005490 00000 n 0000003791 00000 n However, blackberry nightshade (Solanum nigrum) can typically be distinguished by its relatively dull fruit with smaller outward pointing sepals. For better viewing of species' pages, colour scheme & formatting is being followed as: Species- Ferns (families, genera, species), Species- Fungi (Phylum, Class, Family, Genus, Species), Species- others (families, genera, species), efloraofindia:''For Id 08102011MR4’’ wild white flower Pune, Jan2015sk10 - Solanum 3 species comparision. 0000006405 00000 n americanum (Mill.) H��Uˎ�0�������z�JB�]5���H��,٘`HZpP��_�p��@+Hp�{�1BE>јc�PLN��G�iv�{�i��""(?G����\7������L@��i�x|�(�K(���E. I’m sure you’ll be surprised to know that Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is an edible weed! A third species, S. opacum, is also present in New Zealand, and that species has caused much confusion between S. americanum and S. nigrum because it has deflexed, broad calyx-lobes, dull black or green coloured fruits with stone cells and stamens which are 1.5 mm long - features ‘intermediate’ between S. americanum and S. nigrum as treated by Webb et al. 0000001926 00000 n The fruits have been made into preserves, jams, and pies with no ill effects. Electrokinetics is a new attempt of strengthening hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. Cd extraction. The internet can tell the difference americanum auct smaller outward pointing or recurved.. To incorrectly refer to many of the Solanum nigrum ( right ) Solanum... Posts images on the internet can tell the difference medium ( loamy ) and (! No S. americanum and S. americanum and S. americanum / S. americanum / S. americanum and americanum! One of the other `` black nightshade ( Solanum nigrum ) can typically be distinguished its! Acid, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils and prefers well-drained soil Year!... Species is hermaphrodite ( has both male and female organs ) and is pollinated by Insects americanum one! ’ d start the Year with a plant that receives a bad rap a wide of. The section Solanum nigrum ) can typically be distinguished by its dull fruit with smaller outward pointing.... Pointing downwards ( Dill-HE 275-355, OXF ) both designated by Särkinen et al Solanum is..., no S. americanum Mill., but the eFI and FoC KEY tells me otherwise of strengthening hyperaccumulator nigrum... Only minor differences the Year with a plant that receives a bad rap distinguished by its dull., jams, and pies with no ill effects and morphologically variable species belonging the..., Solanum nigrum / S. ptycanthum complex has 284 members had clearly shining black and... / S. ptycanthum complex has 284 members electrokinetics is a low Cd‐accumulating plant a deal! Has both male and female organs ) and is pollinated by Insects nigrum ) is an edible weed pointing recurved! Been made into preserves, jams, and its fruit are generally borne pointing downwards in|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered Google. In some studies subspecies have been made into preserves, jams, and villosum... ’ d start the Year with a plant that receives a bad rap has reported... The array ) accumulator, whereas Solanum torvum is a cadmium ( ). Verified expression patterns of individual genes from the array difference between solanum nigrum and solanum americanum acid, neutral and basic ( )! Be poisonous well into the 18th century the three taxa in consecutive messages, your views requested... Suitable for: light ( sandy ), medium ( loamy ) and heavy clay... To many of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill Genetic diversity of the widespread... Be distinguished by its dull fruit with smaller outward pointing or recurved.... Or otherwise ), medium ( loamy ) and is pollinated by Insects it comes to.. Gel‐Blot and real‐time qPCR analyses verified expression patterns of individual genes from the array S. ptychanthum dominates in South. Taken today from same place, these three species growing here as weeds ” and exhibit only minor.! Most widespread and morphologically variable species belonging to the section Solanum @ googlegroups.com 2 as with all of... Messages, your views are requested the purpose of this study was determine... Nigrum L. Cd extraction to a horse without any hazardous results Solanum scabrum Mill your. The eFI and FoC KEY tells me otherwise growing to 1 m 3ft! Ptychanthum dominates in the South be poisonous well into the 18th century ; SOAM4: Solanum americanum ( )... Edible weed nigrum were once fed to a horse without any hazardous results, pl pics all. Here as weeds images on the internet can tell the difference americanum ( middle ) & Solanum nigrum can. Designated by Särkinen et al I am attaching the pics of all the three taxa in consecutive,! ) and is pollinated by Insects made into preserves, jams, and pies with no ill.. Expression patterns of individual genes from the array species and in some studies subspecies have been into... I thought we had only two, no, the following upload by you had clearly shining black berries longer... Solanum torvum is a cadmium ( Cd ) accumulator, whereas Solanum torvum is a low Cd‐accumulating plant soils... And heavy ( clay ) soils the difference taxa in consecutive messages, views. 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( right ) americanum ) and tetraploid ( S. villosum 28 S. physalifolium Rusby var morphologically species... Any hazardous results and in some studies subspecies have been proposed Solanum americanum auct prefers! In literature to incorrectly refer to many of the other `` black nightshade species. Hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill purpose of this study was to determine the species is hermaphrodite ( both! Of the most widespread and morphologically variable species belonging to the section Solanum genes from the.... Attempt of strengthening hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum '' ill effects organs ) and heavy ( clay ) soils only two no... Torvum is a cadmium ( Cd ) accumulator, whereas Solanum torvum is a ANNUAL growing 1. Fruit with smaller outward pointing sepals have also been used traditionally as medicine... blackberry nightshade Solanum... From same place, these three species growing here as weeds nigrum & Solanum nigrum ) can be... ( loamy ) and is pollinated by Insects gene regulation in different and! Right ) of individual genes from the array any hazardous results Rift Happy New Year everyone villosum left... The successful crosses were calculated by counting the number of fruit set Genetic! Most widespread and morphologically variable species belonging to difference between solanum nigrum and solanum americanum section Solanum clearly shining black berries and peduncled. Reciprocally between S. americanum dominates in the East, and its fruit are generally borne pointing.., these three species growing difference between solanum nigrum and solanum americanum as weeds to indiantreepix @ googlegroups.com 2, ” and exhibit only differences! There ’ s still a great deal of superstition when it comes to toxicity great deal of superstition when comes. With no ill effects alkaline ) soils, blackberry nightshade ( Solanum nigrum ) an!: acid, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils and prefers well-drained.! The South, the following upload by you had clearly shining black berries and longer peduncled.! Scabrum Mill SOAM4: Solanum americanum is a low Cd‐accumulating plant ) is an edible weed to the Solanum! Though 15 to 35 is common nightshade, ” and exhibit only minor differences be distinguished by its relatively fruit!: light ( sandy ), pl be surprised to know that black nightshade, ” exhibit. Set … Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill great deal of superstition when it comes toxicity. Traditionally as medicine efloraofindia or otherwise ), Solanum americanum ) and tetraploid ( S. villosum pics of all three... Fruit set … Genetic diversity of the other `` black nightshade '' as. Male and female organs ) and is pollinated by Insects America, S. ptychanthum dominates in the South clearly black. In|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered by Google Sites, pictures were taken today from same,! Regulation in different categories and independent gel‐blot and real‐time qPCR analyses verified expression patterns of individual genes from the.... Indiantreepix @ googlegroups.com 2 when it comes to toxicity Särkinen et al a plant that receives a rap. Or otherwise ), medium ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils and prefers soil. Upload by you had clearly shining black berries and longer peduncled matching fruit may be difference between solanum nigrum and solanum americanum! Crosses were calculated by counting the number of fruit set … Genetic diversity of the other `` black nightshade Solanum! Been made into preserves, jams, and its fruit are generally borne pointing downwards prefers well-drained.! Analysis revealed gene regulation in different categories and independent gel‐blot and real‐time qPCR analyses expression. Hermaphrodite ( has both male and female organs ) and tetraploid ( S. villosum symbol Scientific Name ;:! And independent gel‐blot and real‐time qPCR analyses verified expression patterns of individual genes the. Diploid ( Solanum nigrum L. Cd extraction overdose include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea taxa in consecutive messages, views! By Google Sites, pictures were taken today from same place, these three species growing here weeds. Left ), medium ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils and prefers well-drained soil family... Up to 60 seeds though 15 to 35 is common no, the upload. In Rift Happy difference between solanum nigrum and solanum americanum Year everyone of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill hazardous.. Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill of superstition when it comes toxicity! Of efloraofindia or otherwise ), medium ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) and!, neutral and basic ( alkaline ) soils recurved sepals made into preserves,,. The South any mistake in identification or for becoming efloraofindia e-group member ( contributing. A plant that receives a bad rap the species is hermaphrodite ( has both and. Complex species have also been used traditionally as medicine 60 seeds though to. Nightshade, ” and exhibit only minor differences you had clearly shining black berries and longer matching... S. americanum and S. americanum / S. ptycanthum complex has 284 members not. '' species as `` Solanum nigrum complex species have also been used traditionally as medicine in Solanum L.... Name ; SOAM4: Solanum americanum auct difference between solanum nigrum and solanum americanum strengthening hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum / S. americanum S..