Thus, only in 1944 did the US Navy begin to use its 150 submarines to maximum effect: installing effective shipboard radar, replacing commanders deemed lacking in aggression, and fixing the faults in the torpedoes. The US Navy, under Admiral Chester Nimitz, had responsibility for the rest of the Pacific Ocean. [190] Historians debate whether it was strategically worth the casualties sustained. Hsiung, James C. and Steven I. Levine, eds. Enterprise Games has recently come across a supply of spare parts for SPI games. In a series of amphibious assaults between 1 May and 21 July, the Australian I Corps, under General Leslie Morshead, attacked Japanese forces occupying the island. [77] Japan's fallback strategy, relying on a war of attrition to make the US come to terms, was beyond the IJN's capabilities.[73][78]. Although several units of the British Fourteenth Army had to fight their way out of encirclement, by early April they had concentrated around Imphal in Manipur state. These units assisted the Japanese war effort in their respective territories. 8 destroyers, 5 submarines, and 4 escorts. Click the first initial of the game below to jump to the START of that letter. Hara, p. 299. During the Allied military occupation of Japan (1945–52), these Japanese terms were prohibited in official documents, although their informal usage continued, and the war became officially known as the Pacific War (太平洋戦争, Taiheiyō Sensō). As the war turned against Japan, IJN submarines increasingly served to resupply strongholds which had been cut off, such as Truk and Rabaul. 0000010302 00000 n After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands and other minor islands as determined by the Allies. Furthermore, the standard-issue Mark 14 torpedo and its Mark VI exploder both proved defective, problems which were not corrected until September 1943. Curtin predicted the "battle for Australia" would soon follow. The game enables players to recreate the entire course of the war, form the opening Japanese attack on 7 December, 1941 to the climatic Allied assaults in the closing days of 1945. The Naval General Staff advocated an advance to the south to seize parts of Australia. Following the Japanese Invasion of Salamaua–Lae in March, 1943, Cartwheel began with the Salamaua–Lae campaign in Northern New Guinea in April, 1943, which was followed in June to October by the New Georgia campaign, in which the Allies used the Landings on Rendova, Drive on Munda Point and Battle of Munda Point to secure a secretly constructed Japanese airfield at Munda and the rest of New Georgia Islands group. Japan sponsored several puppet governments, one of which was headed by Wang Jingwei. The two Allied attacks met on 22 June, breaking the Japanese siege of Imphal.              Siberia: 52,300, 400, (52,700) [175], Off Cape Engaño, 500 miles (800 km) north of Leyte Gulf, the Americans launched over 500 aircraft sorties at the Northern Force, followed up by a surface group of cruisers and destroyers. In the first, Tulagi would be occupied on 3 May, the carriers would then conduct a wide sweep through the Coral Sea to find and destroy Allied naval forces, with the landings conducted to capture Port Moresby scheduled for 10 May. [98] On 7 January, the Japanese attacked Bataan. The Japanese established a major base in the Australian Territory of New Guinea beginning with the capture of Rabaul on 23 January 1942. [222] The formal Japanese Instrument of Surrender was signed on 2 September 1945, on the battleship USS Missouri, in Tokyo Bay. Meng Guoxiang & Zhang Qinyuan, 1995. The clash was the largest carrier battle in history. Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997. [187], The American operation ("Operation Detachment") to capture the island involved three Marine divisions of the V Amphibious Corps, a total of 70,647 troops,[189] under the command of Holland Smith. Gathering five heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, and a destroyer, he sailed to engage the Allied force off the coast of Guadalcanal. Japanese Monograph no. [148] The Joint Army–Navy Assessment Committee assessed US submarine credits. Gorgeous Mint Copy in Original Wrap!!!! [175] Utilizing radar-guided torpedo attacks, American destroyers sank one of the battleships and three destroyers while damaging the other battleship. Japanese planning was for fighting a limited war where Japan would seize key objectives and then establish a defensive perimeter to defeat Allied counterattacks, which in turn would lead to a negotiated peace. [154] During this time, about 250,000 newly American-trained Chinese troops under Joseph Stilwell and Chinese expeditionary force were forcibly locked in the Burmese theater by the terms of the Lend-Lease Agreement. [161] The Japanese then developed a new plan, known as A-GO. Once captured, the islands of Saipan and Tinian were used extensively by the United States military as they finally put mainland Japan within round-trip range of American B-29 bombers. Soviet Studies. 0000018380 00000 n They then based their possible actions on the defense of an inner perimeter, which included the Marianas, Palau, Western New Guinea, and the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese Burma Area Army attempted to forestall the main Allied attack on the central part of the front by withdrawing their troops behind the Irrawaddy River. Other Japanese leaders have apologized, including former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi in 2001. The surrender was accepted by General Douglas MacArthur as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, with representatives of several Allied nations, from a Japanese delegation led by Mamoru Shigemitsu and Yoshijirō Umezu. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. [96] Cooperation between the Chinese Nationalists and the Communists had waned from its zenith at the Battle of Wuhan, and the relationship between the two had gone sour as both attempted to expand their areas of operation in occupied territories.              Sumatra: 2,700, 500, (3,200) [216] At the time Soviet participation was seen as crucial to tie down the large number Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea, keeping them from being transferred to the Home Islands to mount a defense to an invasion. [163] For the Americans, the Marianas operation would provide the following benefits: the interruption of the Japanese air pipeline to the south; the development of advanced naval bases for submarine and surface operations; the establishment of airfields to base B-29s from which to bomb the Japanese Home Islands; the choice among several possible objectives for the next phase of operations, which would keep the Japanese uncertain of American intentions. On 19 June, a series of Japanese carrier air strikes were shattered by strong American defenses. [citation needed] The Nanking Massacre is another example of atrocity committed by Japanese soldiers on a civilian population. [179] Faced with the loss of most of their experienced pilots, the Japanese increased their use of kamikaze tactics in an attempt to create unacceptably high casualties for the Allies. Many other ships of Center Force were attacked, but continued on. The locations of this first wave of Japanese attacks included the American territories of Hawaii, the Philippines, Guam, and Wake Island and the British territories of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong. On 9 July, two days after the banzai attack, organized resistance on Saipan ceased. The Japanese media, influenced by military propagandists,[f] began to refer to the embargoes as the "ABCD ("American-British-Chinese-Dutch") encirclement" or "ABCD line". A-GO envisioned a decisive fleet action that would be fought somewhere from the Palaus to the Western Carolines. After fanatic Japanese resistance, the Marines captured Aslito airfield in the south on 18 June. %PDF-1.4 %���� For the war between Chile, Bolivia, and Peru in 1879–1884, see, "Pacific Theater of World War II" redirects here. The US Navy, by contrast, relied on commerce raiding from the outset. A battle-hardened, one million-strong Soviet force, transferred from Europe,[217] attacked Japanese forces in Manchuria and landed a heavy blow against the Japanese Kantōgun (Kwantung Army). 0000022136 00000 n Simulations Publications Inc. 1978. (2006) "Germany and the Second World War: The Global War", p. 175, Cited in Frank Crowley (1973) Vol 2, p. 51. No dents. The goal was to get close to Japan itself, then launch massive strategic air attacks, improve the submarine blockade, and finally (only if necessary) execute an invasion. In the Pacific, the Allies divided operational control of their forces between two supreme commands, known as Pacific Ocean Areas and Southwest Pacific Area. The Mobile Fleet returned home with only 35 aircraft of the 430 with which it had begun the battle. War in the Pacific (SPI/DG) - errata (official and unofficial), review, variant and errata (zipped RTF files), article index, review (Word file), rules for DG ed. "The Lake Khasan Affair of 1938: Overview and Lessons". This view is explained by Victor Davis Hanson: "because the Japanese on Okinawa ... were so fierce in their defense (even when cut off, and without supplies), and because casualties were so appalling, many American strategists looked for an alternative means to subdue mainland Japan, other than a direct invasion. 0000022370 00000 n 日本軍による『三光政策・三光作戦をめぐって [Concerning the Three Alls Strategy/Three Alls Policy By the Japanese Forces]. With heavy air support, Army units pushed inland, taking Clark Field, 40 miles (64 km) northwest of Manila, in the last week of January. The Japanese leadership was aware that a total military victory in a traditional sense against the US was impossible; the alternative would be negotiating for peace after their initial victories, which would recognize Japanese hegemony in Asia. Following prolonged tensions between Japan and the Western powers, units of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army launched simultaneous surprise attacks on the United States and the British Empire on 7 December (8 December in Asia/West Pacific time zones). Over 17 million Chinese civilian deaths (1937–45); 2,133,915 Japanese military deaths 1937–45. [119] Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo was put in a difficult tactical situation in which he had to counter continuous American air attacks and prepare to recover his Midway strike planes, while deciding whether to mount an immediate strike on the American carrier or wait to prepare a proper attack. Chinese estimates put the death toll at 250,000 civilians. In an effort to discourage Japanese militarism, Western powers including Australia, the United States, Britain, and the Dutch government in exile, which controlled the petroleum-rich Dutch East Indies, stopped selling oil, iron ore, and steel to Japan, denying it the raw materials needed to continue its activities in China and French Indochina. [238] There were significant indirect losses to the British Empire territories of India and Burma as a result of the war. The council never had any direct operational control, and any decisions it made were referred to the US-UK Combined Chiefs of Staff, which was also in Washington. [65], Japanese strategic bombing efforts mostly targeted large Chinese cities such as Shanghai, Wuhan, and Chongqing, with around 5,000 raids from February 1938 to August 1943 in the later case. [110] However, the actual battle did not go according to plan; although Tulagi was seized on 3 May, the following day, aircraft from the American carrier Yorktown struck the invasion force. In the first months of 1944, the Chinese and American troops of the Northern Combat Area Command (NCAC), commanded by the American Joseph Stilwell, began extending the Ledo Road from India into northern Burma, while the XV Corps began an advance along the coast in Arakan Province. A good number of the counters remain unpunched. The militia, worn out and severely depleted by casualties, were relieved in late August by regular troops from the Second Australian Imperial Force, returning from action in the Mediterranean theater. From mid-June 1944, Iwo Jima came under American air and naval bombardment, this continued until the days leading up to the invasion.[188]. Although the Japanese had moved their major vessels out in time to avoid being caught at anchor in the atoll, two days of air attacks resulted in significant losses to Japanese aircraft and merchant shipping. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor was attacked by Japanese aircraft. American casualties were 6,821 killed and 19,207 wounded. It was also hoped that this penetration of the Japanese inner defense zone, which was a little more than 1,250 miles (2,010 km) from Tokyo, might force the Japanese fleet out for a decisive engagement. [223][224] Material losses were 188+ warships including 5 battleships, 11 aircraft carriers, 25 cruisers, 84 destroyers and destroyer escorts, and 63 submarines, plus 21,255 aircraft. LeMay also oversaw Operation Starvation, in which the inland waterways of Japan were extensively mined by air, which disrupted the small amount of remaining Japanese coastal sea traffic. War in Europe provides an integrated linkage between these two and provides for three player play. Robert S. Burrell, "Breaking the Cycle of Iwo Jima Mythology: A Strategic Study of Operation Detachment,", "National Revolutionary Army Order of Battle for the Battle of West Hunan". [106] He proposed to achieve this by attacking and occupying Midway Atoll, an objective he thought the Americans would be certain to fight for, as Midway was close enough to threaten Hawaii. In a press release issued after the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, President Harry S. Truman warned Japan to surrender or "expect a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this Earth". [190] The Japanese losses totaled well over 20,000 men killed, with only 1,083 prisoners were taken. Some items are in abundant supply, but others are somewhat limited, so check on availability before placing your order. On 10 December, Japanese forces began a series of small-scale landings on Luzon. [112] The Battle of the Coral Sea was the first naval battle fought in which the ships involved never sighted each other, with attacks solely by aircraft. 0000000016 00000 n 312–336. The second level is the full Campaign Scenario, which seeks to recreate the entire Pacific war, in all its complexity. War in the Pacific, so it was felt, was a natural outgrowth of SPI’s massive War in Europe, a similar treatment of that Theatre of World War II. Only one American warship was slightly damaged. 2 (Oct. 1969), pp. Imperial Japan's World War Two. The strike force found and struck only an oiler, the Neosho, and the destroyer Sims. With the striking power of the Kido Butai having been destroyed, Japan's offensive power was blunted. [110] The element of surprise, which had been present at Pearl Harbor, was now lost due to the success of Allied codebreakers who had discovered the attack would be against Port Moresby. This would equate to a total of 3.82 million combined NRA/CCP casualties, of which 1.74 million were killed or missing. Curtin agreed to place Australian forces under the command of MacArthur, who became Supreme Commander, South West Pacific. Japan was not any closer to defeating China after this operation, and the constant defeats the Japanese suffered in the Pacific meant that Japan never got the time and resources needed to achieve final victory over China. Cherevko, "Hammer and Sickle against Samurai Sword" ch. A great majority of the Chinese forces were able to retreat out of the area, and later come back to attack Japanese positions at the Battle of West Hunan. [92] The Dutch East Indies campaign subsequently ended with the surrender of Allied forces on Java and Sumatra.[93][94]. The Japanese planned to use their remaining carriers as bait in order to lure the American carriers away from Leyte Gulf long enough for the heavy warships to enter and to destroy any American ships present. Thailand, with its territory already serving as a springboard for the Malayan Campaign, surrendered within 5 hours of the Japanese invasion. Meanwhile, Japanese ground forces launched repeated attacks on heavily defended US positions around Henderson Field, in which the Japanese suffered appalling casualties. On 16 April, 7,000 British soldiers were encircled by the Japanese 33rd Division during the Battle of Yenangyaung and rescued by the Chinese 38th Division, led by Sun Li-jen. A series of withdrawal actions brought his troops safely into Bataan, while the Japanese entered Manila unopposed on 2 January 1942. In Japan, the government and nationalists viewed these embargos as acts of aggression; imported oil made up about 80% of domestic consumption, without which Japan's economy, let alone its military, would grind to a halt. The raid had major operational implications because it forced the Japanese to stop their advance in the South Pacific, until the Combined Fleet provided the means to protect future operations from American carrier attack.              Total: 1,647,200, 473,800, (2,121,000), The IJN lost over 341 warships, including 11 battleships, 25 aircraft carriers, 39 cruisers, 135 destroyers, and 131 submarines, almost entirely in action against the United States Navy. This cut the Burma Road, which was the western Allies' supply line to the Chinese Nationalists. The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. Submarines also rescued hundreds of downed fliers, including future US president George H. W. Bush. Natural caves were enlarged, and many new ones were blasted out. The few Japanese attackers that managed to reach the US fleet in a staggered sequence encountered massive anti-aircraft fire with proximity fuzes. The Japanese finally broke off the operation on 3 July. [109] During a series of meetings held from 2–5 April, the Naval General Staff and representatives of the Combined Fleet reached a compromise. [108], Admiral Yamamoto now perceived that it was essential to complete the destruction of the United States Navy, which had begun at Pearl Harbor. On the night of 24–25 October, the Southern Force under Nishimura attempted to enter Leyte Gulf from the south through Surigao Strait, where an American-Australian force led by Rear Admiral Jesse Oldendorf and consisting of six battleships, eight cruisers, and 26 destroyers, ambushed the Japanese. However, they did not press home their advantage, and were content to conduct a largely indecisive gunnery duel before breaking off. [184] The capture of Iwo Jima would provide emergency landing airfields to repair and refuel crippled B-29s in trouble on their way home and a base for P-51 fighters escorts for the B-29s. 1-2 million deaths occurred in French Indochina during the Japanese occupation, mostly due to the 1945 Vietnamese Famine. 0000005130 00000 n Around 1,536 U.S. civilians were killed or otherwise died of abuse and mistreatment in Japanese internment camps in the Far East; in comparison, 883 U.S. civilians died in German internment camps in Europe. [201] Total American casualties were 49,451, including 12,520 dead or missing and 36,631 wounded. In strategic terms the Allies began a long movement across the Pacific, seizing one island base after another. Had it been done so, the first American counterattack in the Pacific could have been stopped. US submarines, as well as some British and Dutch vessels, operating from bases at Cavite in the Philippines (1941–42); Fremantle and Brisbane, Australia; Pearl Harbor; Trincomalee, Ceylon; Midway; and later Guam, played a major role in defeating Japan, even though submarines made up a small proportion of the Allied navies—less than two percent in the case of the US Navy. [160] The Japanese were forced to watch helplessly as their garrisons in the Gilberts and then the Marshalls were crushed. After being driven out of Malaya, Allied forces in Singapore attempted to resist the Japanese during the Battle of Singapore, but were forced to surrender to the Japanese on 15 February 1942; about 130,000 Indian, British, Australian and Dutch personnel became prisoners of war. This list of SPI games includes games published by Simulations Publications, Inc. as separate titles, ... War in the West (1976) War in the Pacific (1978) War of the Ring (1977) Wellington's Victory: Battle of Waterloo (1976) Wilson's Creek (S&T #80, 1980) Winter War (S&T #33, 1972) 0000004470 00000 n [citation needed]. In the six-month war of attrition, the Japanese had lost as a result of failing to commit enough forces in sufficient time.[126]. [97] The only forces that remained to defend the Philippines were the ground troops, a few fighter aircraft, about 30 submarines, and a few small vessels. Carl Boyd, "The Japanese Submarine Force and the Legacy of Strategic and Operational Doctrine Developed Between the World Wars", in Larry Addington ed. [241] Material losses included some 1,000 tanks and AFVs, 5 landing ships, and 300 aircraft. This name was released to the public on 12 December, with an explanation that it involved Asian nations achieving their independence from the Western powers through armed forces of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. [75] This meant sinking any warship, commercial vessel, or passenger ship in Axis-controlled waters, without warning and without aiding survivors. SPI Spare Parts. 25 (1): 53. On 10 August the "sacred decision" was made by Japanese Cabinet to accept the Potsdam terms on one condition: the "prerogative of His Majesty as a Sovereign Ruler". War In The Pacific Mint Original Wrap SPI. TITLE: War in the Pacific PUBLISHER: Simulation Publications Incorporated (SPI) SCOPE: RULEBOOK VERBAGE: GAME BOX VERBAGE: YEAR PUBLISHED (EDITIONS): 1978.Only one published edition by SPI. West Pacific area Japanese naval facilities a multi-level simulation of the Pacific theater of operations during World war II under! Guerrillas aided US forces to find and dispatch the holdouts along with many civilians northern. Zipped PDF files ), Q & a for DG ed as their in... Not maintain her forces stated that, if Japan did not adopt a defensive posture wait. Hsiung, James C. and Steven I. 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